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INDUSTRIAL SOLAR WATER

SOLAR THERMAL:

There are two types of solar water heating systems, based on the type of circulation;
1. Thermosyphon
2. Forced circulation
All domestic and industrial systems up to 4000 LPD (liters per day) @ 60 deg.C,; works on the principle of thermosyphon. Industrial systems beyond 4000 LPD to any capacity will work on forced circulation principle.

Thermosyphon system:

The system works on a principle called “THERMOSYPHON” (Natural circulation). Due to the density difference between the cold & Hot Water, the lighter hot water flows up into the tank and the heavier cold water enters the collector.

Solar radiation incident on the collector panels heats the absorber. This heat is transferred to the water contained in the absorber & becomes less dense than the water in the storage tank. Hot water starts rising and settles at the top of the storage tank. Simultaneously cold water descends to the collector absorber tubes, gets heated up and the cycle repeats.

The circulation in the system during the heating process is purely due to the difference in density only. There is no other mechanical moving part, hence the system reliability is very high.

At the end of the day when radiation is zero (after dark/sunset), the collector will contain heavier cold water and the tank will have lighter hot water. This will ensure that there will be no circulation during night & hence no conduction losses on account of this.

The hot water storage tank is well insulated to retain the hot water temperature and to minimize the overnight temperature drop/heat losses.

The Sacrificial Anode (Only for SS tank) prevents the tank from galvanic corrosion. For the monsoon / cloudy days the system is fitted with Electrical back up the heater with thermostat.

Forced circulation system:

In forced circulation systems, two pumps in tandem are used for circulation of water between collector bank & system insulated tank. The pump operation is controlled by OTC (Differential Temperature Controller), which is fitted Inside the Control panel. OTC senses the cold & hot water temperature through two sensors, one fitted at the bottom of the tank to sense cold water temperature & the other fitted at the top of the last collector of the row in the collector bank, to sense the hot water temperature inside the collector

The difference in temperature between the two sensor points is the criteria for the operation of the pump that is controlled through DTC. This temperature difference can be set between 0 to 10 deg C.

Solar radiation falling on the collector heats up the water inside the absorber. The temperature of the water starts gradually increasing compared to the water temperature inside the tank. When this temperature difference between the sensor points reaches the preset temperature difference in DTC, the pump is switched “ON”. This will result in the entry of cold-water form the system-insulated tank into the collector bank & discharge of hot water from the collector bank to the system insulated tank.

The process of switching ON & QFF of the pump & circulation of water continues till the end of the day. By the end of the day, the entire quantity of water in the tank reaches the system-designed temperature, provided the radiation level is at a minimum of 800 watts per sq.mtr.

The process of switching ON & QFF of the pump & circulation of water continues till the end of the day. By the end of the day, the entire quantity of water in the tank reaches the system-designed temperature, provided the radiation level is at a minimum of 800 watts per sq.mtr.

 

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM SPECIFICATION FOR 60 deg C SWHS UP TO 5000 LPD

 

Item Description Unit 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 5000
Solar Flat Plate Collector Nos 12 16 20 24 28 32 40
Tank
Material SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304
Capacity Ltrs 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 5000
Shell Thickness mm 1.6 1.6 1.6 2 2 2 2
Dish Thickness mm 1.6 1.6 1.6 2 2 2 2.5
Quantity Nos. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Tank Insulation
Insulation Thickness mm 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Float Chamber with Copper Float
Material SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304 SS304
Quantity Nos. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pump (Make – Kirloskar)
Capacity HP NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Electrical Backup with Thermostat
Rating Kw 2 3 3 3 3 4 4
Quantity Nos. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Control Panel – Type DTC with RTD PT 100 sensors
Quantity Nos. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Temperature Gauge
Quantity Nos. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Pressure Gauge
Quantity Nos. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Water Meter
Size Inch 1″ 1 ½” 1 ½” 1 ½” 1 ½” 1 ½”
Quantity Nos. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Gun Metal Gate Valve
Quantity – 1 BSP Nos. 3 0 0 0 0 0 8
Quantity – 1 ¼” BSP Nos. 0 3 3 3 3 0 0
Quantity – 1 ½” BSP Nos. 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
Angle Wheel Valve
Quantity Nos. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
System Internal Piping
Quantity – 1 BSP Nos. 24 0 0 0 0 0 60
Quantity – 1 ¼” BSP Nos. 0 27 33 42 50 60 0
Quantity – 1 ½” BSP Nos. 0 0 0 0 0 15 0
Cold Water Inlet
Quantity – 1 ¼ BSP Mtr. 8 8 8 8 8 8 0
Quantity – 1 ½” BSP Mtr. 0 0 0 0 0 0 8
Quantity – 1 ½” BSP Mtr. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
System Internal Piping Insulation
Insulation Thickness mm 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
Pump Wiring (2.5mm2 x 3 core)
Armoured cable 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sensor Wiring
2 pair, 4 core Mtr. 0 0 0 0 0 0 40
Civil Work
Volume Mtr. 0.18 0.24 0.3 0.36 0.42 0.48 0.6
Required Terrace Area
Terrace area Sq.Mt 36 48 60 72 84 96 120
Sacrificial Anode
Quantity Nos. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Collectors Clamps
Quantity Nos. 24 32 40 48 56 64 80
Hardware
Bolt, washer, spring washer etc 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
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